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Bütün Dergiler
Dergi: Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Yıl: 2013     Sayı: 3     Dönem:     Sayfa Numaraları : 87-103
Okul Müdürlerine Yönelik Motivasyonel Dil Ölçeği: Türk Kültürüne Uyarlama, Dil Geçerliği ve Faktör Yapısının İncelenmesi
Hamit ÖZEN
Makale Özeti:

Araştırmanın amacı, Motivasyonel Dil Ölçeği’nin Türk kültürüne uyarlanmasıdır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 219 ilkokul ve ortaokul öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Ölçeğin uyarlaması İngilizce dilinden Türkçe’ye çeviri ile başlamış sonra geri çeviri ile İngilizceye dönüştürülmüştür. Çeviri geçerliği amacıyla İngilizce uzmanlarına test-tekrar test uygulaması yapılmış, her iki testin maddeleri arasında korelâsyon yoluyla Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Katsayısı belirlenmiştir.

Yapı geçerliği için Açımlayıcı Faktör Analizi (AFA) yapılmıştır. AFA sonucunda ölçeğin üç boyutta oluştuğu görülmüş ve yönlendirici dil, cesaret verici dil ve aitlik yaratıcı dil olarak adlandırılmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenirlik düzeyi ve maddelerin ayrışıklığı Cronbach Alfa Katsayısı, Düzeltilmiş Madde-Toplam Korelâsyon ve % 27’lik alt-üst grup farkına ilişkin t- değerleri hesaplanarak sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca ölçeğin alt faktörlerinin ortalama ve standart sapma değerleri ile alt ölçekleri arasındaki ilişkinin tespitinde Pearson Momentler Çarpımı korelâsyon analizi uygulanmıştır. Bu işlemlerden sonra ölçeğin geçerli ve güvenilir olduğu görülmüştür.

Anahtar Sözcükler: okul müdürlerine yönelik motivasyonel dil ölçeği , okul müdürü , öğretmen , motivasyonel dil teorisi ,


Dergi: EBAD/JESR-Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi Journal of Educational Sciences Research     Volume: 2013     Number: 3     Annualy:     Page Numbers : 87-103
Motivational Language Scale for School Principals: Adaptation for Turkish Culture, Language Validity, and Examination of Factor Structure
Hamit ÖZEN
Abstract :

Introduction

Many researches have been conducted on leadership style. There is no ideal definition and way found in the literature to define and develop leadership. Every society has taxonomied leadership according to their values. The term “born to be a leader” belongs to the leadership style approach that purports leadership as genetically gained properties.The physical traits depicted are found in the basement of the trait approach. Having found some adverse outcomes in the trait approach, the style approach is starting to become emphasized. This approach analyzes and defines the behaviors of successful leaders and deals with the fact that a leaders’ ability to solve problems come from his/her effective problem solving ability. According to studies that ascertain the situations of a leader successes, the reason leaders emerge is due to the environment in which he/she dwells. The core point is that no leader's behavior is valid in every situation. Different leaders’ behaviors are at stake in different situations and groups (Şişman, 2011).

A newer, realistic theory was needed because criticism about the trait and style approaches. With the rise of research on leadership, the perception that one trait cannot define leadership ability and that no leadership behavior exists that fits in every situation has caused situational leadership to emerge, consisting of both approach-trait and style-trait,which considers the work of necessity and quality. Blanchard (2007), who studies situational leadership, posits that a leader must adapt his effective leadership approach to his substantial context, reclaiming his followers' loyalty and efficiency for the task. As for Fiedler’s (1971) situational approach, a leader's effectiveness depends on the interaction between leaders and the context in which events occur. The core aim of this approach is to define factors that orchestrate the relations between a leader's traits, behaviors, and performances.

The Path-Goal theory’s theoretical background relies on the expectancy theory of motivation. The behavior grid of followers depends on the need of the conduct to be satisfied. Path-Goal theory seeks for how to find a method in which a leader's effect causes the followers to increase their success rate. This approach has a third dimension that motivates the followers to reach their aims by their leader (Sökmen & Boylu, 2009). Although most of researches have implicitly emphasized motivation and communication, the studies that have questioned the language effects on personal and organizational outcomes remain limited (Mert, Keskin & Baş, 2011). Mayfield, Mayfield and Kopf (1995) express on a scale improvement study that leadership studies have concentrated mostly on behavior, traits, and abilities; however, the language that leaders use has not been scrutinized much. Deriving from the idea that the language leaders use has not been scrutinized much, Mayfield, Mayfield and Kopf (1995) developed a scale to find the most
 effective level of communicative language ability of a leader can use on a follower.

They acknowledge that language is important from the perspective of followers' motivation and output. Managerial communication can function in three ways according psycholinguistics and language theory. (a) Perlocutionary language is used for giving direction and reducing uncertainty. When a manager provides information and feedback about a worker’s tasks, goals, and rewards, the worker’s motivation and job satisfaction is likely to increase (b). Illocutionary language occurs when a manager shows encouragement, empathy, and concern through communication, (c) Locutionary language is explanatory speech. Through such speech a manager can help workers understand the organization’s unique culture, structure,rules and values. Locutionary language is a meaning-making communication style. The environment in which a follower is working must have symbolic statue.

The meaning
constituted in the organization serves as interior and exterior award, presenting social interaction and integration for creating an organizational identity for followers, though (Sullivan, 1988; Mayfield, Mayfield & Kopf, 1995; Mayfield, Mayfield & Kopf, 1998;Karaaslan, 2010; Mert, Keskin & Baş, 2011).Research on motivational language is barely found in the Turkish body of literature.One of the most important is the validity and reliability of motivational language scale (Mert,Keskin & Baş, 2011). The research tested the scale developed by Mayfield, Mayfield and Kopf (1995) in terms of reliability and validity. The research performed by Mert, Keskin and Baş (2011) is an important step that gave a way to Motivational Language Theory. Another is the research on the mediation effect of Leader-Member Exchange for the relationship between Motivational language and organizational citizenship (Karaaslan, 2010).

We intended to define the situation as how school principals use motivational language with teachers (the heart of the school), including which variables they speak in their daily spoken activities, and collecting the data to learn what kind of outcomes this causes. Upon surveying the literature we did not find any trace of how educational administrators use motivational language. We aim to compel an empiric study to analyze the factor structure of the Motivational Language Scale and adapting this to Turkish culture in order to learn the perceptions of the schools’ teachers

Method

There were three study groups. The first study group was comprised of 219 primary school teachers who took part in the research voluntarily and worked at schools in the Bayrampaşa district of İstanbul during the 2011-2012 spring term. One hundred and twentytwo of them were female and 97 of them were male. They were chosen with a simple random sampling method. Another sampling group was chosen with a purposeful sampling method and included a PhD in Educational sciences for deciding construction validity. The last group consisted of 20 English teachers for translation validity.

Findings and Discussion

The Motivational Language Scale (MLS) was used to collect data, which is a Likert scale that has 24 questions. It was first developed by Mayfield, Mayfield and Kopf (1995).MLS items were translated into Turkish by the author of the article. Later, the author created a double columned form. One column showed the Turkish translation and the second column showed the original English. Based on this translated form, a ten point rating scale for checking the translation validity was designed. The translated form was validated by English specialists and revised by the researcher if needed. The next step was the assessment of the Turkish form of the MLS in terms of its contextual meaning and understanding. The Turkish form was translated back to English to ensure that translation was meaningful and the scale preserved its conceptual integrity.

Turkish and English forms were handed to 20 English teachers, of whom 13 were teaching a private English course, 5 were working at a state school, and 2 were working at a University as an English instructor. This was done during a 2-4 week interval and scores were correlated. The Turkish form of the scale was also assessed for content validity by 5 faculty members in the Educational Sciences who had PhD degrees. The Davis technique,which supplies the content validity ratio, was computed. Finally, data were collected by using the Turkish form of the scale from 219 teachers. The Davis technique was applied to confirm the content validity. The form was composed to require a specialist opinion that ranged from 1 to 10. The average congruence score was found to be the Davis co-efficient ≥.8, which is valid.

Data were analyzed by using an independent sample t-test, the Pearson-Moment correlation, factor analysis, and Cronbach’s Alpha. The result of an independent sampling ttest comparing the upper 27% and the lower 27% of the sample did not show any significant differences. Item-total correlation coefficients were between .56 and .83. The Kaiser Meyer Olkin value was .946. The Bartlet Spherecity test was significant (X2=4859.252, p<.01).Exploratory factor analysis was held and indicated that 3 factors existed that were greater than Eigen value 1, explaining 69% of the total variance. Factor loads were changed from .54 and .84. The Pearson-Moment correlation coefficients between factors ranged from .67 to .78. Cronbach’s Alpha values for factors ranged from .88 to .94. The translated Turkish form of the Motivational Language Scale (MLS) in this study has a high validity and reliability. It could be claimed that MLS is able to measure the motivational language school principals use with a great level of reliability. MLS construct validity was also reassured by exploratory factor analysis.

Conclusion

It may be concluded from these findings that the Motivational Language Scale’s Turkish form was used with a satisfying level of reliability and validity.

Keywords : motivational language scale for school principals , school principal , teacher motivational language theory ,
Dokümanlar / Documents
Okul Müdürlerine Yönelik Motivasyonel Dil Ölçeği: Türk Kültürüne Uyarlama, Dil Geçerliği ve Faktör Yapısının İncelenmesi
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