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Sempozyum: 6th Internatıonal Computer and Instructıonal Technologies Symposium
Design of The While-Listening Tasks in Autonomous Interactive Multimedia Software
Asst. Prof. Dr. Vehbi TUREL
The University of Bingol

Asst. Prof. Dr. Eylem KILIÇ
The University of Yüzüncü Yıl
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Sempozyum: 6th Internatıonal Computer and Instructıonal Technologies Symposium
Design of The While-Listening Tasks in Autonomous Interactive Multimedia Software
Asst. Prof. Dr. Vehbi TUREL
The University of Bingol

Asst. Prof. Dr. Eylem KILIÇ
The University of Yüzüncü Yıl
Abstract :

In this article, firstly the definition of autonomy will be briefl y touched on. Autonomy is defined by Cotterall
(1995: 195) as ‘the extent to which learners demonstrate the ability to use a set of tactics for taking control
of their learning’ while Dickinson (1995: 167) says that ‘… autonomy can be seen as an attitude towards learning
in which the learner is prepared to take, or does take, responsibility for his own learning’. Carver and Dickenson
(1987: 15) describe an autonomous learner as ‘a self-directed learner … who retains the responsibility for his
own learning …’. These definitions clearly indicate that in autonomy language learners (LLs) take or at least
are supposed to take the control of their learning and accept full responsibility. With respect to accepting responsibility, Little (1995: 175) says that ‘the main characteristic of the learner autonomy is that learners accept
responsibility for their learning.


Secondly, the categorisation of autonomy will be shortly made. In terms of foreign language learning
(FLL), it will not be wrong to say that there are two kinds of autonomy although autonomy can be categorised
into more groups. The first is that LLs access self-access centres at language institutions / schools and study by
themselves, but when they have diff iculty they generally consult their tutors or teachers. This type of autonomy
can be called semi-autonomy. The latter, which is the focus of this article, is that LLs study by themselves and
do not have any tutors or teachers. This kind of study is generally carried out at home, in libraries and the like.
Unlike classroom learning, LLs have to take the full control of their learning and accept their full responsibility.
In this mode of FLL, LLs themselves and autonomous materials are the two most outstanding variables that play
an important role. Regarding the role of LLs, Frankel (1987: 52) says that ‘… the responsibility for the quality and
quantity of learning achieved in a self-study course lies principally with the learner.’ Little (1995: 176) notes that
‘learners who accept responsibility for their learning are more likely to achieve their learning targets; and if they
achieve their learning targets, they are more likely to maintain a positive attitude to learning in the future’. These
are also agreed on by Dickinson (1995: 166), Cotterall (1995: 198), Ho and Crookall (1995: 242).

Mainly, what need to be taken into account in order to be able to design and create pedagogically and
psychologically eff ective and useful while-listening tasks in interactive multimedia software, where a wide range
of digital elements can be combined and presented on the same digital platform more eff iciently for foreign
language learning purposes. While this is done, the needs of autonomous language learners will be accounted
for. To be able to present the topic eff iciently, concrete examples of the while-listening tasks for autonomous
interactive multimedia software will be provided and the assumptions underlying them will be explained.

Keywords : while-listening stage, design of the while-listening stage tasks, design of the while-listening
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