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Sempozyum: 6th Internatıonal Computer and Instructıonal Technologies Symposium
Factors Affecting Teachers` Implementation of Lessons: Instructi-Onal Methods and Cognitive Levels of Learning
Semiral ÖNCÜ
Uludağ University

Nuray Parlak YILMAZ
Uludağ University
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Sempozyum: 6th Internatıonal Computer and Instructıonal Technologies Symposium
Semiral ÖNCÜ
Uludağ University

Nuray Parlak YILMAZ
Uludağ University
Abstract :

The constructivist learning approach encourages teachers to utilize learner-centered instructional activities.Teachers have been given opportunities to train themselves especially through programs like Intel Teacher Program to practice learner-centered instructional activities. Topical and pedagogical content knowledge affects the variety of the instructional methods a teacher uses (Gerges, 2001). However, it is diff icult to construct pedagogical content knowledge for higher level skills (Rajendran, 2001). This study examines whether attending the Intel Technology program, the amount of working experience and gender aff ect (1) the instructional methods the instructor uses and (2) the level of learning – according to Bloom’s taxonomy – they emphasize. A survey was administered to 16 elementary and secondary schools in Bursa to collect data from teachers of several diff erent fields through convenience sampling. 267 teachers responded to the survey.

An example question stem included “Considering the way you teach your lessons in general, how often do you perform the following instructional method?” An example item was “student presentations.” The items were 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1=“never” to 4=“very often.” The survey also inquired whether the teacher attended the Intel technology program, the teacher’s gender and working experience in years. Several ANCOVA’s were run where attending the Intel technology program, gender, and teaching experience were the independent variables and each instructional method was the dependent variable. Similarly, each level of learning was also entered into the consequent analyses as dependent variables. Results show that working experience aff ects only the “individual student work” the teachers emphasize. As the working experience increased, the teacher implemented lesser and lesser individual student work (R2 = .015, F(1, 205) = 4707, p < .05).

Use of the several of the instructional methods and emphasis on most of the learning levels were dependent on gender. Females thought they more frequently performed demonstrations and reviewed homework. They also thought they more frequently emphasized memorizing information, understanding relationships, and synthesizing according to Bloom’s taxonomies. It is interesting that on all the relationships turning out to be significant, female teachers marked higher scores than males did. Regarding the Intel technology program, the teachers who attended the program have utilized the lecture and the testing techniques significantly more often than the other teachers. The results imply that the Intel technology program does not impact the subjects of this study in the desired direction in terms of the implemented instructional methods. The idea might exist in belief (An, Wilder, & Lim, 2011) but it does not appear to exist in practice.

Regarding the eff ect of gender, there does not seem to be an apparent pattern on why females think they perform some of the instructional methods more frequently than males do; however, females always appear to feel they perform more frequently. This might be as a result of females’ emotional being or their approach to some of the social issues. Or, females might actually be performing this way. It would not be possible to prove this without more direct measurements of the lessons. This study relied on the teachers’ perceptions. Today as the Turkish Ministry of National Education promotes constructivist learning principles, higher levels of learning in Bloom’s taxonomy gains more and more importance. Gender to some extent aff ects the way teachers conduct their instruction. Although females appear to emphasize the highest level of learning (synthesizing), the middle levels of Bloom’s taxonomy were not diff erent for males and females.

Keywords : intel technology program, working experience, gender, instructional method, cognitive level,
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